The Basic Laws, adopted in April 1906, were an edict of the Tsar. They confirmed the October Manifesto, but also reaffirmed the Tsar`s power over the Duma: Count Sergei Witte, the Tsar`s Minister of Finance and recently Russian plenipotentiary in the negotiations on the Treaty of Portsmouth (ending the war with Japan), was appointed Chairman of the Tsar`s Council of Ministers on his return from New Hampshire. He proposed the introduction of an elected legislature, the granting of basic civil rights and the formation of a constitutional monarchy. Nicholas vigorously opposed these ideas, but relented after his first election as head of a military dictatorship,[4] Grand Duke Nicholas threatened to shoot himself in the head if the tsar did not accept Witte`s proposal. [4] Nicholas reluctantly agreed and published the so-called October Manifesto on October 30 [O.P. 17. October 1905, promised basic civil rights and an elected parliament called the Duma, without whose consent no laws would be passed in Russia in the future. In April 1906, Nicholas II promulgated the Basic Laws, a de facto constitution with 124 points. The Basic Laws codified certain individual rights, such as religious freedom and the sanctity of private property – but they also undermined the promises of political reform made in the October 1905 Manifesto: the document, adopted on 23 April (6 May), consisted of an introductory section and five chapters (82 articles): On the Nature of Supreme Monarchical Authority; On the rights and duties of Russian subjects; About laws; On the Council of State and the State Duma and their activities; About the Council of Ministers, Ministers and heads of certain departments. The legislature is the Federal Assembly of Russia, which consists of two chambers: the State Duma (the lower house) and the Federation Council (the upper house). The two chambers have different powers and responsibilities: the State Duma is of greater importance because it bears the primary responsibility for the adoption of federal laws. Although a draft law may be submitted to either legislative chamber (or may be submitted by the President, the Government, local legislators, the Supreme Court, the Constitutional Court or the High Court of Arbitration), it must first be considered by the State Duma and adopted by majority vote before being submitted to the Federation Council, which has 14 days.

to vote on it. If the law is passed by the Federation Council, it must be signed by the President to become law. If rejected by the Federation Council, the draft law is referred back to the State Duma, which may then override the Council`s rejection by adopting it again by a two-thirds majority in the same form. The president has final veto power, but the State Duma and the Federation Council also have superior power by a two-thirds majority. This charter had been granted under duress, and Nicholas abhorred the limits of his power, which he had sworn at his coronation, to pass on to his son. He dismissed the first and second dumas when they proved “unsatisfactory” for him[2] and unilaterally changed the electoral statutes (in violation of the constitution) to ensure that more landowners would be elected to future dumas. Although the resulting third and fourth doumes proved to be more permanent, they still quarrelled with the tsar and his government over the general direction of state policy and the fundamental nature of the Russian state. Finally, with the outbreak of the Russian Revolution in 1917, the Duma played a leading role in the tsar`s abdication, which in turn led to the abolition of the monarchy and the rise of the Russian provisional government under Kerensky to power. Art. 100 Regulations relating to regimental corps, corps of engineers and quartermaster corps, as well as regulations and orders to institutions and authorized personnel of the departments of the army and navy, shall be submitted directly to the Sovereign Emperor after examination by the Military and Admiralty Council, in so far as such rules, Regulations and orders actually concern only the above-mentioned institutions.

and do not concern matters of general laws and do not require new expenditures from the Treasury, or if they require new expenditures, these will be covered by the surpluses expected in the financial budgets of the Ministries of War or Navy. If a new expenditure cannot be covered by the expected surplus, the submission of such ordinances, regulations and ordinances to the approval of the emperor shall be admissible only after the necessary allowance has been requested in the prescribed manner. Art. 11 As supreme administrator, the sovereign emperor issues decrees in accordance with the laws concerning the organization and functioning of the various departments of the State administration, as well as the instructions necessary for the execution of the laws. 111 The Council of State and the State Duma have the power to initiate legislative proposals in accordance with the procedures they have established for the adoption of new laws and the repeal and amendment of existing laws, with the exception of the fundamental laws of the State, which may be revised only on the initiative of the sovereign emperor. The Duma, which is elected by male voters, is also expected to approve the laws created. Although a boyarenduma existed in Russia from the Moscow period until the reign of Peter I, it was a consultative institution without legislative prerogatives. Peter abolished this body in 1721 and replaced it with the government Senate. This body consisted of nine (later ten) members and was to oversee the administration of the empire under the direction of a chief prosecutor, who (like all members of this corps) was appointed by the sovereign. The emperor could submit draft decrees to this committee for deliberation and recommendation, but he was not obliged to do so, nor to accept their opinion once it was offered. Later, the Senate assumed an important role in administration and law, and by the end of the nineteenth century it had become the highest judicial body in Russia, with all officials and judicial institutions under its control.